Concept of R Sebesta Programming Language (35-52) - Asia B Technology

Concept of R Sebesta Programming Language (35-52)


Name: Lie, Maximilianus Maria Kolbe

Task : Translate Chapter 2 Concept of Programming Language by Robert W Sebesta


This chapter mentions the development according to the programming language. This chapter explores the circumstances in which each is designed and focused on a contribution of discussion and motivation to its development. The whole according to the painting of each language is not explained, but we only discuss a few features introduced according to each language. More interesting are the most hypnotic features based on language formation or in the computer science region.

This chapter does not include in-depth discussion according to each language or concept, it is explained in the future chapter. Informal explanations of these features will be given in line with the development of the language.

This chapter discusses many programming r languages and language concepts that will be unknown to the poly reader. This topic will be discussed in detail only in the next chapter. Who feels this is uncomfortable is welcome to hold back reading this chapter until all the chapters are finished being studied.

The choice of what language will be discussed here is subjective, and some readers will feel unhappy with regards to the absence of one or more of their favorite languages. But to mention the history in a reasonable amount, it is as important to leave some programming languages that exist. The choice was based on our assumptions about how important the language was to the development of language & global computing as a whole. We also reveal more clearly some of the other languages that will be referenced in this book.

The order of this chapter is: the initial programming language described chronologically. However, the new version of the language will be explained along with the initial language, compared to the next section. For example, Fortran 2003 is described in the same section as Fortran I (1956). Also in some cases, the second most important language and related to using that language also arises in that section.

This chapter consists of 14 complete examples of programs, in non-aligned languages. The programs are not described in this chapter, they are only intended to illustrate the program in these languages. Readers familiar with generic imperative languages can certainly read and know most of the code based on the event, except in LISP, COBOL, and Smalltalk. (Functions such as those with models in LISP will be described in chapter 15.) The same problem was solved using Fortran, ALGOL 60, PL/I, BASIC, Pascal, C, Perl, Ada, Java, JavaScript, and C# events. Also in Fortran 95, we avoided using features that allow to avoid looping, so as to keep the event simple & readable, as a result it was only intended to illustrate the basic iteration structure of the language earlier.

Figure two.1 is a diagram in the order of High-Level Languages that will be discussed in this chapter.

Figure two.1: Genealogy of High-Level Programming Language2.1 Zuse’s Plankalkul

The first programming language discussed in this chapter is very non-ordinary at some awards. For one thing, this language has never been implemented. Furthermore, although developed in 1945, the description was not published until 1972. Because very few people are familiar with this language, the advantages based on this language do not arise in other languages until 15 years after its development.2.1.1 Historical Background

Between 1936 and 1945, German scientist Konrad Zuse (pronounced: “Tsoozuh”) created a complex and vivid personal computer series of electromechanical interactions. In early 1945, bombs from the enemy destroyed all his research except for the last model, the Z4, as a result of which he moved to the Bavarian village of Hinterstein and his research group scattered.

Working alone, Zuse sought to develop a language on expressing computing for the Z4, a project he began in 1943 to a proposal for his Ph.D. research. He named the language Plankalku, which means Calculus Program. The manuscript in which it was listed in 1945, but not published until 1972 (Zuse, 1972), Zuse explained Plankalkul and wrote algorithms in the language to mention various kinds of things.2.1.two Language Review

Plankalkul is very complete, using some great features in the data structure. The simplest data type on Plankalkul is a bit. Integer and Floating-point data types are built according to bit types. The Floating-point type uses two complementary notations and a series of hidden bits used to avoid storing very large bits for decimal parts or Floating-point values.

In addition to the usual scalar type, Plankalkul includes arrays and records (called Structs in C-based languages). His records include nested records.

Although this language does not have goto, there is an iterative statement that is like using for from Ada Language. This language also has a Fin command with superscript that functions as an exit sign based on a number based on iteration or beginning based on looping. Plankalkul has a branching command, but it has no Else.

The most interesting thing about Zuse’s programs is the inclusion based on mathematical self-actualization that explains the interaction between variables in the program. This expression explains what was true during the program was executed. It is very similar to using assertions in Java and in axiomatic semantics that will be discussed in chapter 3.

Zuse’s manuscript contains events of greater complexity than using those written until 1945, including programs to sort sapta sets, knowing connectivity by graph, trying integer and floating-point operations including square roots, and performing syntax analysis and reasoning formulas that have brackets and operators at 6 degrees of unequal levels. The most recognized thing is the 49 pages of algorithms playing chess, a game where he does not master it.

If computer scientists had discovered Zuse’s paintings on Plankalkul in the early 1950s, all aspects of the language that had been hindered by its defined implementation would have been taken note. Each statement is composed of two-three lines of code. The first line for example is partly a grand statement of the language used now. The second line, which is optional, contains subscripts of the reference array in the first row. The same method of syndication of subscripts was also used by Charles Babbage in his program for Analytical Machines in the middle of the 19th century. The last line based on each Plankalkul statement consists of the type name based on the variable mentioned in the first row. This notation looks very intimidating when it is first seen.

The following statement showing the awarding of A[4]+1 to A[five] illustrates this notation. Rows marked V create subscript, and rows marked using S create data types. In this model, 1.n means n-bits integer:

We can only speculate that directions based on the design of programming languages can be taken if Zuse’s work output can be known globally in 1945 or until 1950. It is interesting, knowing how his work may not be in harmony with what the calm situation does according to scientists, compared to the German of 1945 which is being isolated.

First of all, know that the word pseudocode is used for a different meaning than its contemporary meaning. We call the languages discussed in this section pseudocodes because they were named at the time of their development & use (late 1940s & early 1950s). However, they are obviously pseudocodes for example now.

Computers that were as generic as they were in the late 1940s and early 1950s were much more or less useful than they are today. In addition to being slow, unreliable, expensive, and very mini memory, the time machine is very difficult to program due to the lack of supporting software.

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